Answer: Not a human parasite, most likely plant material.
This case was generously donated by Florida Fan, who knew it wasn't a parasite but was hoping that someone would be able to identify this striking flower-like object.
I think that Tomáš Macháček has the answer. He states "...it looks like some plant trichome which somehow contaminated food. Compare it for example with Russian Silverberry trichomes (http://goo.gl/3yvkZ6)." Looks like a very close match. Thank you Tomáš for solving our mystery!
For those of you wondering, trichomes are a diverse array of appendages or outgrowths found on some plants. Since we consume a wide variety of plant materials, it is no surprise that they are found occasionally in stool.